Basic Notes

 Ques-:1.           What is Operating System?

 Ans :-               Operating System works as an interpreter between computer hardware and application. Operating System works as a user interface.

Ques-:2.           Types of Operating System?

 Ans :-               There are two types of Operating System—

  1. SOS – Simple Operating System as for example – Windows 95, 98, ME
  2. NOS – Network Operating System as for example – Windows NT, 2000, 2003


Ques-:3.           What is Server?

 Ans :-               Servers are computer that provides the services. As for Example –

.1     DNS Server

.2     WINS Server

.3     DHCP Server

.4     RAS Server

.5     VPN Server

Ques-:4.           What is RAS Server?

 Ans :-               RAS stands for Remote Access Server. It is basically use for mobile user in the network. This Server provides the remote access connectivity for mobile user. In this way all of the mobile users are connected to server through telephone line. This Server also provides the connectivity between two or more Offices in the Network.

Ques-:5.           What is VPN Server?

 Ans :-               VPN stands for Virtual Private Network. It is basically use for mobile user in the network. This Server provides the remote access connectivity for mobile user. In this way all of the mobile users are connected to server through internet. This Server also provides the connectivity between two or more Offices in the Network. VPN is Cost Effective (No costly).

Ques-:6.           What is IAS Server?

 Ans :-               IAS stands for Internet Authentication Services. IAS Server is also known as RADIUS Server. IAS Server Provides the centralized management of multiple RAS & VPN Servers in the Network. On this Server Remote Access Policy and Remote Access Logging Options are available.

Ques-:7.           What is Active Directory?

 Ans :-               Active Directory is the main concept of Windows 2000/2003 Network. It stores all of the information about the whole network such as users, printers, computers etc.

Ques-:8.           What is Tree?

 Ans :-               A group of domain is called tree and sharing a contiguous Name space.

Ques-:9.           What isForest?

 Ans :-               A group of tree is called forest and does not sharing a contiguous name space but sharing a common configuration (Schema).

Ques-:10.      Difference between D.C. and A.D.C.?

 Ans :-               D.C. stands for Domain Controller and A.D.C. stands for Additional Domain Controller. A.D.C. is a back up copy of D.C. Only one different is available Between D.C. and A.D.C. i.e. – Operation Master Role.  On D.C all of the three Operation Master Roles are available—

  1. RID Master
  2. PDC Emulator
  3. Infrastructure Operation Master Role

But on A.D.C no any operation master roles are available

Ques-:11.      What is the benefit of Child Domain?

 Ans :-               There are many benefits of Child Domain Such As—

  1. Security Boundary
  2. Administrative Overhead Low
  3. Network Traffic Low


Ques-:12.                     What is operation master role?

 Ans :-               Operation master role is available on domain controller in the network.

There are five types of operation master role inside the active director

  1. Schema Master – Schema Master Is responsible for changes of schema, updating of schema in the Network
  2. Domain Naming Master – Domain Naming Master Is Responsible For adding or removing a domain inside the forest.


 RID Master – RID Master provides RID no. of each D.C in the Network. Every D.C is having a one id no, it is called RID NO. domain—rid, object—S.I.D.

 PDC Emulator – It is basically use For Previous version Of Windows 2000 Clients in The Network. PDC Emulator Work as an emulator for previous version of Windows 2000 Clients in the network.

PDC – Primary Domain Controller

BDC – Backup Domain Controller

  1. Infrastructure Operation Master – Infrastructure Operation Master Role provides uniqueness of any object inside the forest.

Infrastructure operation master role. Updates references to objects and group membership from other domain In the Network.

Ques-:13.      What is Group?

 Ans :-               Group is a collection of user account. It provides the simplified administration in the network.

Ques-:14.      What is OU?

 Ans :-               OU stands for Organizational Unit. On OU we define group policy in the network. Group policy is basically assigned on active directory container i.e.  Site, domain, OU. When ever we want some users in the network do not use shut down the system, do not use run command, do not use control panel, then we put that user in the OU and assign the appropriate Group Policy on that OU.

Ques-:15.      What is Group Policy?

 Ans :-               Group policy provides the stream line access to all of the users in the network. Group policy is basically assigned on active directory container i.e.  Site, domain, OU. When ever we want some users in the network do not use shut down the system, do not use run command, do not use control panel, then we put that user in the OU and assign the appropriate Group Policy on That OU.

Ques-:16.      Difference between Permission, Right and Policy?

 Ans :-               Permission – Permission are basically assigned on network resources as for example – File, Folder, Share Folder, Printer

 Right – Right is basically assign to users and groups.

 Policy – Policy are basically assigned on active directory container i.e. – Site, Domain, OU.

Ques-:17.      What is ISA Server?

 Ans :-               ISA stands for Internet Security Acceleration. ISA Server Provides the Internet connectivity for all of the users in network ISA server also works as a Proxy Server in the network. With the help of ISA Server Administrator can Filtering a Client request For a Specific Web site in the Network.

Ques-:18.      What is Default Gateway?

 Ans :-               Default Gateway is the IP Address of Router in the network. When ever any clients want to go to another network that query will forward to Default Gateway.

Ques-:19.      What is Site?

 Ans :-               A Site is a geographical area where all of the domains are available. Site manages the Replication Traffic between Two or More Different Sites in the Network.

Ques-:20.      What is Operation Master Role?

 Ans :-               Operation Master Role is available on Domain controller in the Network. There are Five types of Operation Master Role –

  1. Schema Master
  2. Domain Naming Master
  3. RID Master
  4. PDC Emulator
  5. Infrastructure Operation Master Role


Ques-:21.      Difference between Mixed Mode and Native Mode?

 Ans :-               There are three types of domain mode—

 Mixed Mode – In this mode NT, win 2k and win 2k3 D.C are available.

 Win 2k Native Modes – In this mode Win 2k And win 2k3 D.C are available.

 Win 2k3 Native Mode – In this mode only win 2k3 D.C are available.

Ques-:22.      What is SCSI?

 Ans :-               SCSI stands for Small Computer System Interface. In SCSI the rate of data transmission is fast. SCSI Hard Disk Speed—R.P.M is fast In SCSI Data Transmission Speed Is 320 MBPS in the Network. In SCSI Controller We Can connect Maximum 15 physical Devices in the System.

Ques-:23.      What are A-Host Record and PTR Record?

 Ans :-               A record is also called host record. This record is basically created in forward lookup Zone.

 PTR record is also called pointer record. This record is basically created in reverse lookup Zone.

Ques-:24.      What is Reservation?

Ans :-               Reservation Is Basically used In DHCP Server. When Ever we want This Computer Is Always received This IP address From DHCP Server in The network, in That Case we create a Reservation in DHCP Server Of that particular Computer in The Network.

Ques-:25.      IP Address Range/Classes?

 Ans :-               There are two types of IP address—

 Class Full IP Address

Class Less IP Address

Class Full IP Address – There are five classes – 

 1. Class A        –        0 – 126 (127 is reserved forLoopback)

2. Class B         –        128 – 191

3. Class C        –        192 – 223

4. Class D        –        224 – 239

5. Class E         –        240 – 255

Ques-:26.      Difference between Hardware Router and Software Router?

 Ans :-               Hardware Router – Hardware Router is a dedicated Router. It’s having a lot of features such as security, dedicated routing in the network. As for example Cisco Router.

 Software Router – Software Router is not a dedicated Router. It provides the different services also, such as DNS server, DHCP Server. i.e.—Windows Based Router.

Ques-:27.      Difference between Hardware Firewall and Software Firewall?

 Ans :-               Hardware Firewall – It is a dedicated Firewall. A lots of security features are available on hardware based firewall. As for example— Cisco pix Firewall.

 Software Firewall – It is not a dedicated Firewall. Its provides the normal security in the network—check point

Ques-:28.      What is Domain Controller? 

Ans :-               D.C stands for domain controller. It provides the centralized management of entire domain in the network. When ever we will install active directory database on a server side operating system, then after that  system becomes a D.C. Domain Controller manages all security related Interaction between users and Computers in The Network.

Ques-:29.      What is B Router? 

Ans :-               B Router stands for Bridge Router. We can say this is a layer three bridge that provides the communication between two or more different network ID.

Ques-:30.      What is Bridge? 

Ans :-               Bridge is a layer 2 network device that provides the communication within the same network id. In Bridge Maximum 16 ports are available.

 Ques-:31.      Difference between Gateway and Router?

 Ans :-               Router works on same network architecture but Gateway works on different network architecture.

Ques-:32.      What is POP Server/SMTP Server?

 Ans :-               POP stands for Post Office Protocol. It is basically use for mail receiving purpose in the network.

 SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. It is basically use for sending a mail as well as receiving a mail in the network.

Ques-:33.      What is Active Directory Partitions?

 Ans :-               Active directory Partition Is a Logical Partition Of active directory. This Partition Is Basically Use for replication from D.C To A.D.C & D.C to G.C.S (Global Catalog server) in the Network. There are three Types Of active Directory partition—

  1. Schema partition
  2. Configuration Partition
  3. Domain Partition


Ques-:34.      Types of Active Directory Partitions?

 Ans :-               There are three types of Active Directory partition – 

  1. Schema Partition
  2. Configuration Partition
  3. Domain Partition


Ques-:35.      What is the Function of Ping Command?

 Ans :-               Ping provides to check the Physical/IP Connectivity between two or more devices in the network.Ping sends an ICMP request from source computer to destination computer and destination computer sends an ICMP reply.

Ques-:36.      What are Broadcasting, Multicasting and unicasting?

 Ans :-               Broadcasting – One to All

Multicasting – One to many not all

Unicasting – One to One

Ques-:37.      What is Group Nesting?

 Ans :-               When we add two or more Groups within a Single Group, it is called Group Nesting.

Ques-:38.      What is FIXMBR?

 Ans :-               FIXMBR Repair the Master boot Record of the Partition Boot Sector.

Ques-:39.      What is FIXBOOT?

 Ans :-               FIXBOOT write a new Partition Boot Sector on to the system Partition.

Ques-:40.      What is SID?

 Ans :-               SID stands for Security Identifier. Every Object has a unique ID, it is called SID.

Ques-:41.      What is RADIUS Server?

 Ans :-               RADIUS Stands for Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service. RADIUS Server Provides the Centralized management of Multiple RAS & VPN Server in the Network. On this Server Remote Access Policy and Remote Access Logging Options are available.

Ques-:42.      What is Trusting Domain?

 Ans :-               In Trusting Domain Resources are available.

Ques-:43.      What is Trusted Domain?

 Ans :-               In Trusted Domain User Account’s are available.

Ques-:44.      What is Microsoft Exchange Server?

 Ans :-               Microsoft Exchange Server is Software that provides the services such as sending & receiving the Mail.

Ques-:45.      What is Printer?

 Ans :-               Printer is a Software that Governing the Print Device. There are two types of Printer—

  1. Local Printer
  2. Network Printer.


Ques-:46.      What is Chatting?

 Ans :-               Chatting is a Real Time Conversion between Two or More peoples in the Network.

Ques-:47.      What Is Directory Services restore Mode?

 Ans :-               When our Active Directory Database is Not Working Properly, Then We Restart the Domain Controller and Press f8 Key Then after Selecting the Directory Services Restore Mode and Then after Restoring the Active directory Database from the Last Backup.

Ques-:48.      What is normal backup?

 Ans :-               Just like a normal backup. By default backup.

Ques-:49.      What is incremental backup?

 Ans :-               In incremental Backup only incremental parts are backup not full backup.

Ques-:50.      What is Differential backup?

 Ans :-               In differential backup, we take full backup after the normal backup.

Ques-:51.      What is packet?

 Ans :-               A packet is a logical grouping of information that includes a header which contains location information and user data.

Ques-:52.      What is forwarder?

 Ans :-               It is basically use in DNS Server. When client query to the DNS Server,  In that case if the DNS is having a best result then DNS Server give the best result  To The Client Computer  In The Network otherwise DNS Server  forward the client query to the root DNS server on own behalf and give the complete result To The client computers in The Network

Ques-:53.      What is encryption?

 Ans :-               There are four types of encryption—

  1. No Encryption – no
  2. Basic – MPPE – 40 bits – des
  3. Strong – 56 bits – des – MPPE/IPSec
  4. Strongest – 128 bit data encryption – MPPE/IPSec


Ques-:54.      What is RIP v.1, RIP v.2, IGMP, OSPF?

 Ans :-                

  1. RIP v.1 – Broadcast – Small Network Use
  2. RIP v.2 – Multicast
  3. IGMP – Multicast
  4. OSPF – Multicast – For Larger Network


Ques-:55.      What is the requirement Of VPN Server?

 Ans :-               VPN require IP connectivity between the client and the server. VPN does not require a dial up connection Between the Client and server in The Network.

Ques-:56.      What is Inbound Connection?

 Ans :-               Inbound connection is Created On   server Side.

Ques-:57.      What is Outbound Connection?

 Ans :-               Outbound connection is created on client Side.

Ques-:58.      What is The Function of jetpack command In DHCP Server?

 Ans :-               Check the database consistency of DHCP  Server in the Network

Ques-:59.      What is Remote Access Policy?

 Ans :-               In Remote Access Policy there are three options are available—

Ques-:60.      What is trust relationship?

 Ans :-               Trust relationship is an important part in the client server network. There are two types of trust relationship— 

  1. Non Transitive Trust – Non Transitive Trust is a one way trust relationship in the network. As for example—in NT network 
  2. Transitive Trust – Transitive Trust is two way trust relationship in the network. As for example—in 2000/2003 network.


Ques-:61.      What is DACL?

 Ans :-               DACL stand for Discretionary Access Control List. In DACL basically permission entry is available of any user in the network

Ques-:62.      What is SACL?

 Ans :-               SACL stand for System Access Control List. In SACL basically auditing entry is available of any user in the network.

Ques-:63.      What is the booting file Of Windows 2000/2003/xp O/s?

 Ans :-               

  1. NTLDR


Ques-:64.      What is clustering?

 Ans :-               Suppose, I create a web site— This same web page is available On All Of The ten computers. I configured clustering on all of the ten computers. Let Say at a same time one thousand people access this web site. If this web services are provided by only one computer, then it may be a very busy. But in this time workload is sharing among ten computers. This is called clustering and If One Server Will Be down Another Server Are providing The Services in The Network. There are Two Benefits of Clustering—

  1. Fault Tolerance
  2. Load Balancing


Ques-:65.      What Is Schema?

 Ans :-               Schema basically reads The Attributes and defines The Classes. Such As User class, Printer Class, Computer Class.

Ques-:66.      What is Stub Zone?

 Ans :-               STUB Zone is a pointer Record of Sub Child domain in the network. STUB Zone provides the directly communication Between Parent domain and Sub child domain. If any case middle level DNS Will Down in That case Parent and Sub Child Domain are still communicating with each other in the network

Ques-:67.      What Is Shadow Copy?

 Ans :-               Shadow Copy provides the automatic Backup Of any particular shared Folder in The Network. Shadow copy provides the No. of previous version Backup of Any particular Shared folder in the Network. In any time we can View and restore Of Any Previous Version Backup Of that particular Folder. This Is the New features of windows 2003 Operating System.

Ques-:68.      What Is RSOP?

 Ans :-               RSOP stands for Resultant Set of Policy. It is basically use for, when ever we Want, What ever the effective policy Is apply On a particular User and particular computer in The Network

Ques-:69.      What Is Group Policy Modeling?

 Ans :-               In Group policy Modeling, We Can find out what Ever the effective policy Is Apply On a particular User and particular computer in The Network

Ques-:70.      What Is Group Policy Resulting?

 Ans :-               In Group policy resulting, we can find Out What ever the effective policy Is Apply On a particular User and particular computer in The Network

Ques-:71.      What Is SUS Server?

 Ans :-               SUS stands for software Update server. This server provides the Automatic Updating from Microsoft Update Server to All of The Clients and servers in the network

Ques-:72.      What Is GPMC?

 Ans :-               GPMC stands For Group policy Management Console. With The Help Of this Tools We Manage the Group policy Object Of entireForest from single Location in The Network. With The Help of This Too we also take The Backup and restoring Of Group policy object.


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